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Carboplatin is the second generation of platinum antitumor drugs. Its antitumor activity is similar to cisplatin, but its nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and neurotoxicity, especially gastrointestinal reaction, are significantly lower than cisplatin, and its antitumor spectrum is not as wide as cisplatin. The main mechanism of action is to cause cross-linking between and within DNA chains, interfere with DNA molecules and inhibit DNA synthesis of cells. It mainly acts on N-7 and O-6 atoms of guanine in DNA and produces cytotoxic effect. Because the cyclobutane ring in carboplatin molecule is more stable as a ligand than the chloride ion group in cisplatin, it was initially thought that carboplatin may not have the ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity like cisplatin, but it has been proved by systematic biological evaluation and a large number of clinical trials, Although carboplatin is not as serious as cisplatin in renal toxicity, myelosuppression, ototoxicity and neurotoxicity, its damage to the body can not be ignored. There is cross resistance between cisplatin and its antitumor effect in vivo, so cancer cells that are not sensitive to cisplatin are also resistant to cisplatin. It was found that carboplatin not only inhibited tumor growth, but also had radiosensitization effect.
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