Fine chemical industry is the general name of the industry producing fine chemicals. The progress of fine chemical industry also has certain characteristics.
An overview of fine chemicals
Fine chemical industry is one of the most dynamic emerging fields in chemical industry and is an important part of new materials. There are many types of fine chemical products, high added value, wide application and great industrial correlation, which directly serve many industries of national economy and various fields of high-tech industry. Developing fine chemical industry vigorously has become the strategic focus of adjusting the structure of chemical industry, improving the level of a chemical industry and expanding economic benefits.
In order to promote the optimization and upgrading of the structure of the national fine chemical industry and enhance the overall competitiveness of the industry, the state will issue relevant policies in due time and establish the national strategic alliance for technological innovation of fine chemical industry, a new technological innovation organization combining industry, university and research. The ratio of fine chemical industry (the ratio of fine chemical output value to total chemical output value) has become an important indicator to measure the level of chemical industry development and chemical technology in a country or region.
Characteristics of fine chemical industry
There is a wide variety of fine chemicals, including inorganic compounds, organic compounds, polymers and their complexes. The common characteristics of production technology are as follows:
(1) Many varieties, rapid update, the need for continuous product technology development and application development, so the research and development costs are very large, such as pharmaceutical research funds, often accounted for 8%~10% of the sales of drugs. This leads to strong technical monopoly, high profit margins on sales.
(2) stable product quality, high purity of the original product requirements, after compounding not only to ensure the physical and chemical indicators, but also pay more attention to the performance, often need to be equipped with a variety of testing means for various use of the test. These trials are long in cycle and complex in equipment, and many involve human safety and environmental impacts. Therefore, the fine chemical products management regulations, standards are more. Such as pharmacopoeia (see the "People's Republic of China pharmacopoeia", "the British pharmacopoeia"), pesticide management regulations. For products that do not comply with the regulations, the state often limits the improvement to meet the specified targets or prohibit production.
(3)Fine chemical production process and the general chemical production is different, its whole process of production, not only including chemical synthesis (or from natural substances separation, extraction), but also including dosage form processing and commercialization, composed of two parts. In the process of chemical synthesis, intermediates are made from basic chemical raw materials, and then various fine chemicals such as medicine, dye, pesticide, organic pigment, surfactant and perfume are made. Dosage form processing and commercialization processes are processes for the formulation and production of commodities for a variety of products, and their processing techniques are generally similar unit operations.
(4) mostly with intermittent small batch production. Although the production process is long, the scale is small, the investment cost of unit equipment is low, and precise engineering technology is needed.
(5) The products have strong commodity nature and fierce competition among users. The research and production units should have comprehensive application technology to provide technical services for users.
The world's most developed fine chemical industry is led by the United States, Federal Germany and Japan, whose product output ranks first, second and third in the world respectively.
In recent years, the fine chemical industry in China has been paying attention to one problem: the development trend of fine chemical industry in the 21st century. Since the late 1990s, China has decided to increase investment in the fields of energy, information, biology, materials and other high-tech fields. As a traditional industry, chemical industry has not been included in the list of national priority development, and some people have attributed it to sunset industry. But the fact is not so, especially our fine chemical industry, because of its special position in the national economy, because of its close relationship with energy, information, biochemistry and materials science, it will play an increasingly important role in the modernization of our country, and become irreplaceable, indispensable key link. According to the analysis report on Market Foresight and Investment Strategic Planning of China's Fine Chemical Industry from 2014 to 2018, China's specialized chemical industry is still in the early stage of growth in the industry life cycle, while the coating, daily chemicals and pesticide industries are already in the late stage. Here I am confident to tell you that fine chemical industry in China and even in the world, is still a sunrise industry, the future is bright.
Opportunities for fine chemicals
Fine chemical industry is closely linked with people's daily life. It is as important as food production and is related to national security. Therefore, fine chemical industry is one of the pillar industries in China. At the beginning of the new century, fine chemical industry has been listed as one of the key development points by the State Economic and Trade Commission. This is one of the good opportunities for fine chemicals.
The production of fine chemical industry mainly includes new technology, rapid variety replacement, strong technical specificity, strong monopoly, fine process, precise separation and purification, high technical intensity, relatively small production quantity, high added value, and functional and special chemicals. Many experts and scholars at home and abroad regard the fine chemical industry in the 21st century as high and new technology. In foreign high-tech parks, such as Les Ulis in the southwest suburb of Paris, France, there are many fine chemical enterprises. The same is true at home. In Shanghai, Suzhou, Hangzhou and other high-tech development zones have a large number of fine chemical enterprises. As long as the high-tech enterprises, can enjoy policy, financing, foreign trade, land acquisition, employment and other aspects of preferential conditions. This is the second good opportunity for fine chemicals.
At present, the industrial structure adjustment is taking place all over the world. With the continuous improvement of environmental protection requirements, many chemical enterprises have been transferred to developing countries in succession in the industrial developed countries of European Community, the United States and Japan. Despite their attempts to divert pollution, they do move a certain amount of high-technology fine chemical production abroad, and the trend is growing. In terms of the world economic map, Asia, South America and Africa are the main areas where this shift is acceptable. Africa cannot afford this transfer because of its economic and technological backwardness. Although the South American economic cooperation zone, headed by Brazil, has certain economic, technological and resource foundations, foreign investors are frightened by the unstable political situation and economic risks. With rapid economic development, especially east Asia and South Asia, Asia enjoys unique natural and human resources and has achieved a considerable level of economic and technological development. The ten ASEAN countries have the cheapest manpower, with China and India the most competitive. Thanks to its stable political situation, preferential policies, large market capacity and single-minded economic development, China has laid a solid foundation after 20 years of reform and opening up. According to statistics in 1995, there were nearly 20,000 foreign chemical enterprises in China, among which there were 2,206 fine chemical enterprises.
Along with the development of the world and our country high and new technology, many new and high technologies such as nanotechnology, information technology, modern biological technology, modern separation technology, green chemistry, etc., to fuse and fine chemical industry, fine chemical industry service for new and high technology, high and new technology is further modified fine chemical industry, further broaden the application field of fine chemical products, composite products costliness, refinement and further, functionalization, the development direction of fine chemical industry. Therefore, the benign interaction of various high and new technologies is the fourth good opportunity for fine chemicals.
In the face of such four good opportunities, it is no wonder that experts and scholars of our country and people with insight agree that fine chemical industry is definitely a sunrise industry in China and has a great future.