Melting point: 164-168℃ (lit.)
Boiling point: 555.91℃ (rough estimate)
Density: 1.1256 (rough estimate)
Refractive index: 1.5800 (estimated)
Flash point: 100℃
Bitter essence is a chemical, also known as benzidine ammonium, benzoic acid modified tonic acid, benzylammonium benzoate amide. Bitter essence is a white crystalline powder, melting point 163 ~ 170 ℃, odorless, has a very strong bitter taste, is very soluble in water, ethanol, ethylene glycol, etc., and its aqueous solution is neutral.
Benzenediammonium is the most bitter compound known in the world. If the bitterness of quinine is set as benchmark 1, the bitterness of this product is 1000, and the solution with a concentration of 10ppm is unbearable for most people. Most of its applications are related to its bitterness. It is a cheap and efficient substitute for strychnine, bitter lignin, quinine, kojic glycoside and naringin. Benzenediammonium is often used as an aversion agent to prevent people from eating other toxic but tasteless substances. For example, it is added to industrial alcohol, ethylene glycol or methanol similar to ordinary alcohol, antifreeze, paint, toilet cleaner, animal dispersant, liquid soap and shampoo. In addition, it is also added to special nail polish to avoid the bad habit of children biting their nails and expel large beasts. The effects of long-term exposure to the substance on human health are uncertain.
Benzenediammonium is a quaternary ammonium salt formed by the combination of quaternary ammonium salt cations and inert anions such as benzoate ions or saccharin anions. The cation structure of the substance is similar to that of lidocaine, a local anesthetic, except that there is an additional benzyl functional group on the nitrogen atom of the amino group.