Fine chemical industry is closely related to industry and agriculture, national defense, people's life and cutting-edge science. It is an important industrial sector closely related to economic construction and people's life, and one of the strategic priorities for the development of chemical industry. The two world oil shocks of the 1970s forced countries to make elaborate strategic decisions about the chemical industry. This shows that the development of fine chemical industry is a strategic measure related to the national economy and people's livelihood.
Fine chemical production rate (fineness rate)=(total value of fine chemical products/total value of chemical products) x 100%
America rose from 40% in the 1970s to 53% in the 1990s, Germany from 38.4% to 56% and Japan from 57%. It is estimated that in the 21st century, the refined rate of developed countries can be
Up to 60% ~ 65%. Our country now has only 28 per cent, leaving a considerable amount of the fine chemicals needed in the petrochemical industry and various industries to be imported, requiring billions of dollars in foreign exchange each year. It can be seen that the development of fine chemical industry is of great importance to China's national economic construction.
The following are a few respects from which we can look at the meaning of fine chemical industry in national economy.
Agriculture is an important lifeline of the national economy, and efficient agriculture has become the general direction of agricultural development in the world today. High efficiency agriculture needs high efficiency pesticide, veterinary medicine, feed additive, fertilizer and trace element. Pesticides alone include a variety of pesticides, fungicides, rodenticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators and biological pesticides. Pests and diseases account for more than a third of the world's annual crop losses. The benefit obtained after the use of pesticides is more than 5 times the cost of pesticides. Herbicides are 10 times more effective than physical weeding. Animal medicine and feed additives can make livestock less sick, fast growth, high output value, great economic benefits.
In today's society, people's living standards are getting higher and higher, and their living needs are increasing day by day. From the original necessities of life to now many high-end consumer goods. All kinds of supplies emphasize high efficiency, high quality and low price. Cosmetics alone, the number of its variety is enough to be full of beautiful things in eyes, a hundred flowers zhengyan. Beauty, skin care, hair dye, deodorant, sunscreen, hair growth, facial mask, cream, powder, cream, face oil, hand oil, morning supplies, evening supplies, daily necessities, etc. Personal hygiene products also compete with each other. In the past, washing products only soap, washing powder and other several, now a lot of. For example, household cleaners include:
Tableware cleaning, range hood and kitchen utensils and appliances cleaning agent, glass cleaning agent, carpet cleaning agent and so on. There are deodorants for refrigerators, bathrooms, shoes, and household air fresheners. Surfactant of various USES is the most important and most extensive substance in fine chemical industry. A variety of spices, flavors, food additives, leather industry, paper industry, textile printing and dyeing industry is too numerous to enumerate. In short, light industry and People's Daily necessities are a large market for fine chemicals.
Materials with different properties and functions are needed in military engineering, high altitude, underwater and special environment. Such as space rockets, aerospace and space shuttles, atomic reactors, operations under high temperature and pressure, energy development and other environmental requirements of high temperature and high strength structural materials. From the functional point of view, various have heat, mechanical, magnetic. Functional materials such as electronics and electricity, optics, chemistry and biology are all related to fine chemicals.
For example, in the aviation industry, liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen storage tanks used in giant rockets are made of multi-layer insulation materials, which are difficult to be connected mechanically. Instead, polyurethane and epoxy-Nylon ultra-low temperature adhesives are used for bonding. The honeycomb structures used in large Boeing airliners, as well as fiberglass and metal masks, are also adhesive.
Composite materials can combine their advantages to meet the requirements of many special purposes. After glass fiber reinforced plastics, carbon fiber, boron fiber, polyaramide fiber and other reinforced light plastic composites have been developed. In the past, the throat of rocket nozzles was made of graphite. However, with the development of rockets, it became difficult to make the throat of rocket nozzles with graphite. Therefore, heat-resistant composite materials with lower specific gravity emerged, such as carbon fiber or high silicon oxygen fiber reinforced phenolic resin as throat lining and glass fiber reinforced plastic as structural parts. These composites were used in the combustion Chambers of the Apollo landing engines.