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Malonic acid is also known as methane dicarboxylic acid, carrot acid, malic acid, and beet acid. There are 3 crystal types, two of which are triclinic crystal system and one is monoclinic crystal system. Those crystallized from ethanol are white crystals of triclinic system. The relative molecular mass is 104.06. The relative density is 1.631 (15°C). The melting point is 135.6°C. It is decomposed into acetic acid and carbon dioxide at 140°C. It does not decompose under the vacuum of 1.067×103～1.333×103Pa, but directly sublimates. Insoluble in benzene, soluble in water 61.1 (0℃), 73.5 (20℃), 92.6 (50℃), ethanol 57 (20℃), ether 5.7 (20℃), slightly soluble in pyridine. It is decomposed into formic acid and carbon dioxide in case of potassium permanganate. Malonic acid is a dibasic acid with the typical reactivity of a dibasic acid. For example, the methylene group of malonic acid is active and can undergo addition, alkylation, amination, halogenation and other reactions; its two carboxyl groups are very far apart Nearly, it can be dehydrated; it can be esterified with alcohol; it can be heated to decarboxylate; it can be condensed with carbonyl compounds; it can be added to compounds containing active double bonds.
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